• R. Featherstone: Rigid Body Dynamics Algorithms
    Discusses algorithms for forward and inverse dynamics of rigid body systems, in particular joint space formulations. Introduces "spatial vectors".
  • J. Betts: Practical Methods for Optimal Control and Estimation Using Nonlinear Programming
    "Direct methods" for the generation of (locally) optimal trajectories. Reference for the basic algorithms behind PSOPT.


  • Cartwheel 3D: Open source, physically realistic controller for humanoids, with a focus on computer animation rather than on real robots.
  • trajopt: Trajectory optimization for motion planning. Includes code to calculate quasi-static trajectories for walking on a simulated humanoid.
  • Rigid Body Dynamics Library: Open-source implementation of many of the algorithms in Featherstone's book.
  • Gazebo: The Gazebo robot simulator, used in the DARPA challenge.

Robot competitions

  • RoboCup: An annual robot challenge with the eventual goal of producing robots capable of winning a soccer game against the most recent human world cup winner.
  • DARPA robotics challenge: Humanoid robot challenge, organized by the US military, focused on disaster recovery.

Robot projects

  • TUlip: Humanoid robot from TU Eindhoven, designed to participate in the RoboCup tournament. Relatively extensive documentation is available: see separate wiki page.
  • Lola: Humanoid robot from technical university Munich (TUM). See separate wiki page.
  • iCub: The iCub is a 1 metre high humanoid robot. Source code and CAD drawings are available. Unfortunately, it costs about 250,000€ to build. Also, it does not appear to be able to walk.